Authors have the right to produce copies of their work such as printed matter, phonograms, audio visual fixations or data carriers (Art. 10 para. 2 (a) CopA), i.e. to reproduce their work.
There are many examples of reproduction: the classic example is the photocopy – a work is used to produce a photocopied copy of the work on paper (cf. Hilty, Urheberrecht, 2011, 133). For the reproduction, it is not important whether the copy of the work is reproduced on a physical object (e.g. on paper or a CD) or 'immaterially' as a digital copy saved on a medium (e.g. memory of a computer, USB stick). The medium itself also does not have to be 'physical' (e.g. cloud services). Internet uploading and downloading are therefore also acts of reproduction. The short-term or temporary storage of digital content, e.g. streaming where data is only stored in a memory temporarily, is also included.
⇒ Other examples:
Printing, producing copies of works or parts of works on plastic or other materials, scanning, faxing, screening (with a retro projector or a projector connected to a computer, etc.), opening a file on the screen, e.g. a PDF or an image file, reproducing an MP3 file, uploading, downloading (Internet and intranet), browsing, caching, linking, embedding, etc.
Generally speaking, only authors or owners of rights
(if the right of reproduction has been assigned) may copy a work. But not every act of reproduction by other parties is prohibited – the copyright law provides limiting provisions (or statutory licences)
that allow the exceptional use of protected published works (e.g. private use, private use for educational purposes, and professional use
, Art. 19 para. 1 CopA
ortemporary copies Art. 24a CopA